All of the Funds are subject to the following fund-wide risks:
Selection risk: The risk that a subadviser of one or more of a Target Retirement Fund's actively managed underlying funds is incorrect in its judgment about the attractiveness, value and potential appreciation of a particular issuer's securities.
Market risk: For equity securities, individual stocks or overall stock markets may go down. Additionally, an adverse event, such as an unfavorable earnings report, may depress the value of a particular company's stock. For fixed income securities, adverse economic conditions increase the risk that below investment grade companies may not generate sufficient cash flow to service their debt obligations.
Diversification risk: Certain of the underlying Harbor funds in which a Target Retirement Fund invests (Harbor Real Return Fund and Harbor Commodity Real Return Strategy Fund) are non-diversified. These underlying funds may invest a greater percentage of their assets in securities of a single issuer and in a relatively small number of issuers. These underlying funds are more susceptible to risks associated with a single economic, political or regulatory occurrence than a more diversified portfolio. Some of those issuers also may present substantial credit risk.
Concentration risk: Certain of the underlying funds in which a Target Retirement Fund invests are comprised of a limited number of companies. As a result, an adverse event affecting a particular company may hurt an underlying fund's performance more than if it had invested in a larger number of companies.
Portfolio turnover risk: Certain of the underlying Harbor funds may engage in active and frequent trading to achieve their principal investment strategies. This may lead to the realization and distribution to shareholders of higher capital gains, which would increase the shareholder's tax liability. Frequent trading also increases the transaction costs, which could detract from the underlying fund's performance.
Growth style risk: Over time, a growth oriented investing style may go in and out of favor, which may lead the underlying equity growth funds in which a Target Retirement Fund invests to underperform other equity funds that use different investing styles.
Value style risk: Over time, a value oriented investing style may go in and out of favor, which may lead the underlying equity value funds in which a Target Retirement Fund invests to underperform other equity funds that use different investing styles.
Large cap risk: Large cap stocks may fall out of favor relative to small or mid cap stocks causing an underlying fund to underperform other equity funds that focus on small or mid cap stocks.
Small to mid cap risk: Smaller companies may have limited product lines, markets and financial resources. They are usually less stable in price and less liquid than those of larger, more established companies. Small or mid cap stocks may also fall out of favor and underperform large cap stocks.
Emerging market risk: The foreign securities risks are more significant for issuers in emerging market countries such as Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Pacific Basin. Additional risks include immature economic structure and less developed and more thinly-traded securities markets.
Interest rate risk: As interest rates rise, the values of fixed income securities decrease and reduce the value of a portfolio. Securities with longer durations tend to be more sensitive to changes in interest rates, and are usually more volatile than securities with shorter durations. For example, if a security's duration is 10 years, a 1% increase in interest rates would result in a 10% decrease in the security's value.
Credit risk: The issuer of a security could default on its obligation to pay principal and/or interest or its credit rating could be downgraded. Default risk may be higher for below investment grade bonds.
Extension risk: When interest rates are rising, the average life of securities backed by callable debt obligations is extended because of slower than expected principal payments. This would lock in a below-market interest rate, increase the security's duration and reduce the value of the security.
Prepayment risk: When interest rates are declining, the issuer of a pass-through security, such as a mortgage-backed or an asset-backed security, may exercise its option to call the bond (i.e., prepay principal) earlier than scheduled, forcing investors in the security to reinvest in lower yielding securities.
Derivatives risk: The value of derivative instruments does not change in the manner expected by a subadviser of one or more of the Fund's actively managed underlying funds, resulting in disproportionately large losses.
Short sale risk: If the price of securities sold short increases, an underlying fund would be required to pay more to replace the borrowed securities than the fund received on the sale of the securities. Because there is theoretically no limit to the amount of the increase in price of the borrowed securities, an underlying fund's risk of loss on a short sale is potentially unlimited.
High-yield risk: There is a greater risk of losing money from investing in high-yield bonds. These securities are considered speculative because they have a higher risk of issuer default, are subject to greater price volatility and may be illiquid.
Liquidity risk: A period of low economic growth or rising interest rates could reduce the ability to sell bonds. The lack of a liquid market for these securities could decrease their prices.
Mortgage risk: Mortgage derivatives may have especially volatile prices because the imbedded leverage can magnify the impact of the extension or contraction event on the underlying cash flow. There may be a greater risk of losing money due to prepayment and extension risks.
Commodity-linked derivative instruments may have significantly greater volatility than investments in traditional securities. The value of commodity-linked derivative instruments may be affected by changes in overall market movements, commodity index volatility, changes in interest rates, or factors affecting a particular industry or commodity, such as a drought, floods, weather, livestock disease, embargoes, tariffs and international economic, political and regulatory developments. A fund that concentrates its assets in a particular sector of the commodities market (such as oil, metal or agricultural products) may be more susceptible to risks associated with those sectors.